M.B.B.S. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery is an Undergraduate Academic Degree awarded for a course or program in the field of Medicine and Surgery. It is popularly known as M.B.B.S. which is an abbreviated form of Medical degree. M.B.B.S. is a composition of 2 Words, where in M.B. stands for ‘Medicinae Bacalaureus’ (Bachelor of Medicine in Latin) and B.S. stands for ‘Bachelor of Surgery’ (in English). Though the name suggests 2 separate degrees, however it is only 1 degree. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery is the most coveted of all the Medical Degrees in India. M.B.B.S is required to become a Doctor in Allopathic Medicine. Duration of M.B.B.S. extends over a period of 4 ½ academic years which are divided into into 9 semesters. Each semester is of 6 months duration. After the completion of academic study, a candidate has to complete 1 year of compulsory rotating internship. Each semester consists of approximately 120 teaching days. So the duration of M.B.B.S. of 5 ½ years.
The period of 4½ years is divided into 3 Phases:
Phase I – It covers 2 semesters consisting of Pre-clinical subjects (Human Anatomy, Physiology including Bio-Physics, Biochemistry and introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities). Besides 60 hours for introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities, rest of the time is somewhat equally divided between Anatomy and Physiology plus Biochemistry combined (Physiology 2/3 and Biochemistry 1/3).
Phase II – It covers 3 semesters consisting of para – clinical/clinical subjects. During this phase teaching of para-clinical and clinical subjects are done concurrently. The para-clinical subjects consist of Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Forensic Medicine including Toxicology and part of Community Medicine. The clinical subjects shall consist of all these detailed below in Phase III. Out of the time for Para-clinical teaching approximately equal time be allotted to Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine combined (1/3 Forensic Medicine and 2/3 Community Medicine).
Phase III – It covers 7 semesters consisting of continuation of study of clinical subjects covered during Phase-1. The clinical subjects to be taught during Phase II and III are Medicine and its Allied Specialities, Surgery and its Allied Specialities, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Community Medicine. Besides clinical posting as per schedule mentioned herewith, rest of the teaching hours are divided for didactic lectures, demonstrations, seminars, group discussions etc. in various subjects.
- The Medicine and its allied specializes training include General Medicine, Pediatrics, Tuberculosis and Chest, Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Psychiatry, Radio-diagnosis, Infectious diseases etc. The Surgery and its allied specializes training will include General Surgery, Orthopedics Surgery including Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Anesthesia, Dentistry, Radio-therapy etc. The Obstetrics & Gynecology training will include family medicine, family welfare planning etc.
- The first 2 semesters (approximately 240 teaching days) shall be occupied in the Phase 1 (pre-clinical) subjects and introduction to a broader understanding of the perspectives of medical education leading to delivery of health care. No student shall be permitted to join the Phase II (Pare-clinical/clinical) group of subjects until he has passed in all the Phase 1 (Pre-clinical) subjects for which he will be permitted not more than four chances (actual examination), provided four chances are completed in three years from the date of enrollment. After passing pre-clinical subjects, 1 ½ year (3 semesters) shall be devoted to para-clinical subjects.
- Phase II will be devoted to para-clinical and clinical subjects, along with clinical posting.
- During clinical phase (Phase III) pre-clinical and para clinical teaching will be integrated into the teaching of clinical subjects where relevant. Didactic lectures should not exceed one third of the time schedule; two third schedule should include practical, clinical or/and group discussions.
- Learning process should include living experiences, problem oriented approach, case studies and community health care activities. Universities shall organize admission timings and admission process in such a way that teaching in first semester starts by 1st of August each year. Supplementary examination may be conducted within 6 months so that the students who pass can join the main batch and the failed students will have to appear in the subsequent year.
- Medical Schools curriculum is designed to train students so that they can undertake the responsibilities of a Physician who is capable of looking after the preventive, pro motive, curative & rehabilitative aspect of medicine. Only Medical colleges, accredited by the Medical Council of India, award MBBS. Some of the reputed medical schools in India providing M.B.B.S. are All India Institute of Medical Science – New Delhi, Jawahalal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) – Pondicherry, PGIMER – Chandigarh etc.
In India, to obtain M.B.B.S. admission the basic criteria is that a candidate should have scored more than 50% marks in physics, chemistry and biology aggregate in their 10+2 grade. To get medical school entry, one needs to appear for Common Entrance Test (CET) and All India Medical Entrance Examination (AIMEE). The candidate needs to appear for All India Pre Medical Entrance Test for admission to 15% of the total seats for medical and dental courses in all medical and dental colleges run by the Union of India. This test is conducted by Central board of Secondary education. A basic requirement for applying for medical entrance tests is that the student should be at least 17 years old on or before 31st December of the year of admission. Upper age limit, where specified, is 25 years. Written test Typically, medical entrance tests have questions from physics, chemistry and biology (botany and zoology). In general, the mix of questions is such that the focus on biology, which is a combination of zoology and botany, is as much as that on physics and chemistry together. Most of the time there is negative marking for a wrong answer. This would be indicated in the information bulletin or prospectus. Some medical entrance tests also have a few questions on general knowledge, personality and intelligence assessment or English language. The states also conduct their own Pre Medical Entrance Examination for domiciled candidates.
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Subjects
Human Physiology Including Bio-Physics
Introduction to Humanities & Community Medicine
Forensic Medicine including Toxicology
Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Who can and Who should pursue Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Medical School Degree is not meant for weak hearted. Medical students are given an in depth and proper knowledge of human body and it requires that a person will be given practical experience in dissection of bodies and observing various types of surgeries. Medical school requirements include power of concentration, emotional stability and self confidence. This field is meant for those who want to serve humanity and earn good name and good will as well.
Advantages or Benefits of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
- Medical graduates are eligible to sit for various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions such as Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, postgraduate Masters degrees such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Obstetrics and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine (e.g. Doctor of Medicine, if earned in Ireland, the UK or Commonwealth nations) and board certification examinations.
- The prefix of `Dr` before one’s name commands respect. That itself is an achievement in itself.
- Doctors command high salaries and can earn lots of money especially in private practice.
- Doctors also are looked upon with great respect as they save lives with their skills so a Doctor gains the status of a Humanitarian as well.
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Jobs
Modern world is typified by increasingly extravagant and complicated life styles which pave way for a variety of ailments. Therefore the demand for medical professionals is tremendously increasing with this scenario prevalent all over the world. Added to the fact that there are super specialty hospitals in every nook and corner within the country and abroad offering employment opportunities.
Medical Foundation / Trust.
Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies.
B.D.S. – Bachelor of Dental Surgery
Duration : 5 Years
Level : Graduation
Type : Degree
Eligibility : 10+2
B.D.S. stands for Bachelor of Dental Surgery. It is an Undergraduate Academic Degree course which deals with the field of Dentistry. The duration of Bachelor of Dental Surgery course is 4-5 years of study with internship and without internship, Mani-pal College of Dental Sciences offers the course in the mentioned formats. The course was available with internship before 2007. However, in 2007, the Dental Council of India restructured the course and made it a 5 Year course without Internship. This was done because as per DCI, students or colleges didn’t take internship seriously and academicians also felt that internship was not serving its purpose. But, this regulation though under affect, is under consideration. The B.D.S. course is divided into 2 or more semesters. The course can be pursued either as a Full Time Graduate Course or Part Time Graduate Course i.e. through Correspondence or Distance Education depending upon one’s choice. After M.B.B.S., Bachelor of Dental Surgery is one the most sought after course in the field of medical science. B.D.S. enables one to become a Dentist. Dental Courses comprise didactic lectures, demonstrations, group discussions, seminars, clinical work and conferences. Aspiring candidates learn about various forms of treatment including Surgical Procedures, Dental materials, Dental anatomy & Oral histology, Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry, Periodontics, Oral Medicine & Radiology etc. which are some of the topics that are generally taught. There are various Dental Schools and Dental Colleges which impart the education of bachelor in dentistry. Candidates who have a passion for serving humanity are the most suitable for pursuing the course. B.D.S. is meant for strong minded people who can bear ghastly sights and smells. To diagnose trainees will have to conduct physical examination which will expose one to obnoxious smell from both medicine and patient’s mouth. So one should be mentally prepared to keep this fact in mind before opting for this course. Surgery requires patience and a calm mind. Certain surgeries require physical stamina which is often lacking in girls. Girls need to acquire that stamina.
Eligibility for BDS Course
Dental School Requirements include H.S.C. (10+2) with English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology with at least 50% marks. Admission to graduate courses in dentistry is through a general, nationwide competitive examination. Entrance Examinations are conducted in major cities all over India. Advertisements are given, regarding issue of Application forms for Common Entrance Examination, important dates etc., in all leading newspapers all over India are also notified. The All India Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Entrance Exam conducted by the CBSE is common for both the M.B.B.S. and the Bachelor of Dental Sciences (BDS). The allocation of institutions is based on merit. Other than the centrally run medical institutions there is at least one dental college in most states, where admission is governed by domiciliary status. But to be eligible for practice, one must ensure that the course chosen is approved by the Dental Council of India.
Bachelor of Dental Surgery Subjects
- Human Physiology.
- Materials used in Dentistry.
- Human Oral Anatomy, Physiology, Histology and Tooth Morphology.
- Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology.
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
Every candidate will be required, after passing the final BDS examination, to undergo one year paid rotating internship in a dental college.
Advantages or Benefits of Bachelor of Dental Surgery
1) Dentistry Schools enable one to work as Dentist in government or Private Hospitals or open up his/her own dental clinic, to serve the society.
2) Apart from being a service to humanity, career in the field of dental science is one of the most lucrative options in the present time.
3) B.D.S. produces a Dentist who is socially acceptable and is able to work safely and effectively on patients in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and oral disease.
Some of the related job areas and fields for B.D.S.
- Dental Clinics.
- Dental Equipment Manufacturers.
- Dental Products Manufacturers.
- Educational Institutes.
- Pharmaceutical Companies.
- Private Practice.
- Research Institutes.
Some of the Related Courses :
- Diploma For Para medical / Para Dental Course
- Certificate course in Dental and Oral Hygiene
After completing B.D.S. you can become :
- Dental Surgeon
B.Pharm – Bachelor of Pharmacy
Duration : 4 Years
Level : Graduation
Type : Degree
Eligibility : 10+2
B.Pharm. or Bachelor of Pharmacy is an undergraduate Pharmacy course. Pharmacy is the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines. The duration of B.Pharm. is four years whose curriculum is covered in a number of 6-8 Semesters, varying from institute to institute. B.Pharm. curriculum provides valuable knowledge of health care and bio chemical science. Students are expected to perform a number of experiments along with theory classes. Pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level is regulated by the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), a statutory body governed by the provisions of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 passed by the Indian Parliament. Bachelor Degree in Pharmacy enables one to practice the profession of a Pharmacist. There are a number of recognized universities worldwide which offer online Pharmacy Degree. Some of the online Pharmacy Degree Schools are University of Florida, Kaplan University, Baker College, Lehigh University, University of Phoenix, Grand Canyon University and University of Liverpool.
- Bachelor Degree in Pharmacy requires a candidate to have cleared 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry, Maths (PCM) or Physics, Chemistry, Biology (PCB) or Physics, Chemistry, Maths & Biology as subjects. One must also pass with at least 50% marks in Pre University Course with biology/mathematics as one of the subjects, or complete a D.Pharma. (Diploma in Pharmacy).
- There is an option of pursuing Direct Second Year Bachelor of Pharmacy (Lateral Entry) if one has: Should have aggregate of 50% marks in the First and Second year D. Pharmacy Examination with a pass in HSC or equivalent with Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Botany & Zoology) or Mathematics. Or
- Minimum qualifying marks in 10+2 examination as per Regulation (1a) above with pass in two year D. Pharmacy course.
- The criteria of minimum percentage of marks may differ from institute to institute. In some states it is also mandatory to give an additional pharmacy entrance examination in order to be eligible for the course.
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